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Users of Phase I ESAs can be left wondering what steps are necessary to maintain CERCLA’s liability protections after a recognized environmental condition (REC) is identified associated with a current or past use of a property. Every site is unique and there is no single approach to evaluating potential subsurface impacts during a Phase II ESA. The overall level of effort for the Phase II ESA must be customized to the User’s needs, and options should be presented to accommodate the User’s risk tolerance level. This discussion will describe the thought process behind scoping a Phase II ESA as well as provide an overview several options available to Users if contamination is identified.